Conflict Dynamics in Post-2003 Iraq: A Security Dilemma Perspective

  • Hawkar J. Majeed Department of Political Science, Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia, Lumpur, Malaysia http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6109-3189
  • Ishtiaq Hossain Department of Political Science, Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia, Lumpur, Malaysia
Keywords: Security Dilemma, Ethnic Conflict, Post-Invasion Iraq, Identity, Sectarian Politics.

Abstract

A decade and a half since the U.S. invasion, Iraq remains affected by complicated and increasingly changing uncertainties. Intrastate division and lack of social stability are expressed in ethnic and sectarian hostilities. In view of different reasons, 16 years after establishing the new Iraq, this paper asks: why has Iraq been marked by instability, transformation, and inability to maintain stability and peace? This paper explains the ethno-sectarian interactions in Iraq with the help of the theory of security dilemma and explores the derailment of Iraq's transformation process and the beginning of a new period of confrontation from a security dilemma viewpoint. The findings suggest that the security dilemma and ethno-sectarian conflict are further intensified by Kurdish, Shiite, and Sunni groups attempting to assess the threats posed not only by enemy militias but also by the presence of all groups in close proximity.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Hawkar J. Majeed, Department of Political Science, Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia, Lumpur, Malaysia

Hawkar J. Majeed is a PhD candidate in Political Science at the International Islamic University of Malaysia with a focus on peace and conflict in Iraq. he procured his BA in English Literature through Salahadeen (Iraq). He also holds a Graduate Certificate in peace, and security from Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency. Hawkar completed his MA in international studies and politics through the Kurdistan University-UKH. Additionally, Hawkar has experience supporting integrative cross-community and government programs in the Kurdistan region and Iraq, as well as working with different organizations and companies as freelance researcher, consultant and translator. his research interests include the Middle East and Iraq studies; security, religion, identity, peace and conflict.

 

Ishtiaq Hossain, Department of Political Science, Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia, Lumpur, Malaysia

He has obtained BA (Hons.) and MA, degrees in International Relations from the University of Dhaka, Bangladesh. He has graduated with MA in International Affairs from Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada and obtained PhD in Political Science from the National University of Singapore. He has been at the IIUM since March 2002 prior to which he was a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Political Science at the National University of Singapore. He also served as a Visiting Professor in the Elliot School of International Affairs at George Washington University, Washington DC USA and in the Department of Politics at Waikato University, Hamilton, New Zealand.

References

Article 140: Iraqi constitution
Badie, B., Berg-Schlosser, D., & Morlino, L. (eds.) (2011). International Encyclopedia of Political Science. (1st ed.). CA: SAGE Publications.
Central Intelligence Agency (2020). Middle East:: Iraq. The World Factbook. Last accessed on July 11, 2020 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/iz.html
Ciment, J. (ed.) (2015). Encyclopedia of Conflicts since World War II. (2nd edn.). London: Routledge.
Collins, A. (2000). The Security Dilemmas of Southeast Asia. UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Dalay, G. (2017). Iraqi Kurdish Independence Referendum: The Road Ahead | Al Jazeera Center for Studies. Al Jazeera Center for Studies. Last accessed on August 20, 2020 from https://studies.aljazeera.net/en/reports/2017/10/iraqi-kurdish-independence-referendum-road-171024102636556.html
Davis, E. (2004). Democracy's Prospects in Iraq. Foreign Policy Research Institute. Last accessed on July 11, 2020 from https://www.fpri.org/article/2004/06/democracys-prospects-in-iraq/
Dowd, A. W. (2003). Thirteen years: The causes and consequences of the war in Iraq. Parameters, 33(3), 46-60.
Ellingsen, T. (2000). Colorful Community or Ethnic Witches' Brew? Multiethnicity and Domestic Conflict during and after the Cold War. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 44(2), 228-249.
Haddad, F. (2011). Sectarianism in Iraq: Antagonistic Visions of Unity. Oxford University Press.
Herz, J. (2003). The Security Dilemma in International Relations: Background and Present Problems. International Relations, 17(4), 411-416.
Ihsan, M. (2016). Nation Building in Kurdistan: Memory, Genocide and Human Rights (1st ed.). London: Routledge.
Ismael, T., & Ismael, J. (2015). Iraq in the twenty-first century. London: Routledge.
Kaufman, S. J. (2001). Modern Hatreds: The Symbolic Politics of Ethnic War. New York: Cornell University Press.
Kirmanj, Ş. (2013). Identity and Nation in Iraq. London: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Krishnan, N., & Olivieri, S. (2016). Losing the Gains of the Past. The World Bank.
Makdisi, U. S. (2000). The Culture of Sectarianism. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Mearsheimer, J. (2001). The Tragedy of Great Power Politics. New York: W.W. Norton.
Mission, T., & Relations, E. (2020). Erbil-Baghdad Relations. Last accessed on August 20, 2020 from https://gov.krd/english/the-governments-mission/erbil-baghdad-relations/
Morgenthau, H., & Thompson, W. (1948). Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Mowle, T., & Sacko, D. (2007). The Unipolar World: An Unbalanced Future. (1st edn.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Murdock, H. (2021). Baghdad Flight Ban for Iraqi Kurdistan Expected to Impact Aid to Region - Iraq. Retrieved February 26, 2021 from https://reliefweb.int/report/iraq/baghdad-flight-ban-iraqi-kurdistan-expected-impact-aid-region
Palani, K., Khidir, J., Dechesne, M., & Bakker, E. (2019). The development of Kurdistan's de facto statehood: Kurdistan's September 2017 referendum for independence. Third World Quarterly. 40(12), 2270–2288.
Posen, B. R. (1993). The security dilemma and ethnic conflict. Survival, 35(1), 27-47.
Rafaat, A. (2018). Kurdistan in Iraq: The Evolution of a Quasi-State. New York: Routledge.
Rotberg, R. I. (Ed.). (2004). State failure and state weakness in a time of terror. Brookings Institution Press.
Rose, W. (2000). The security dilemma and ethnic conflict: Some new hypotheses. Security Studies, 9(4), 1-51. doi: 10.1080/09636410008429412
Rotberg, R. I. (Ed.). (2004). State failure and state weakness in a time of terror. Brookings Institution Press.
Tang, S. (2009). The Security Dilemma: A Conceptual Analysis. Security Studies, 18(3), 587-623.
Tang, S. (2011). The security dilemma and ethnic conflict: toward a dynamic and integrative theory of ethnic conflict. Review of International Studies, 511-536.
Published
2021-06-30
How to Cite
Majeed, H., & Hossain, I. (2021, June 30). Conflict Dynamics in Post-2003 Iraq: A Security Dilemma Perspective. UKH Journal of Social Sciences, 5(1), 18-28. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v5n1y2021.pp18-28
Section
Research Articles