UKH Journal of Social Sciences 2021-02-16T11:06:39+03:00 Prof. Tarik A. Rashid Open Journal Systems <p><em>UKH Journal of Social Sciences</em>&nbsp;(UKHJSS) is a semi-annual academic journal published by the University of Kurdistan Hewlêr, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. UKHJSS publishes original researches in all areas of Social Sciences. UKHJSS is a Peer-Reviewed Open Access journal with CC BY-NC-ND 4.0&nbsp;license. UKHJSS provides immediate, worldwide, barrier-free access to the full text of research articles without requiring a subscription to the journal, and has neigther article processing charge (APC) nore article submission charge (ASC). UKHJSS Section Policy includes three types of publications: <em>Articles</em>, <em>Review Articles</em>, and <em>Letters</em>. UKHJSS has an e-ISSN: 2520-7806; and a member of Crossref, DOI:&nbsp;<strong><a href="">10.25079/issn.2520-7806</a>. </strong><em>UKHJSS</em> is a&nbsp;member of the DOAJ.</p> <p>UKHJSS is in the list of accredited Scientific Journals by Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Addressing Time Shortage with Microteaching 2020-12-30T20:02:03+03:00 Bahra Taib Rashid <p>This study presents and evaluates the methodology used in the ninety minutes microteaching lesson, which was carried out on a group of my fourth-year students who are studying English in the university and are training to become English teachers. It aims to assess the role of the teacher, students, materials, and activities used in the classroom and also to address the time shortage with microteaching. It deals with a brief overview of the topic and the class that the lesson is aimed at. Then, the methodology includes details about the method that has been used here, which is based on communicative language teaching (CLT) with the justifications of using it. This is followed by analysing the key features of the lesson plan critically and justifies each activity. Finally, the evaluation of the lesson is presented and microteaching as the best solution and strategy for developing teaching skill has been suggested.</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fraud Risk Factors that Affect the Audit Program Plan: The Case of Kurdistan Region, Iraq 2020-12-30T20:02:04+03:00 Samer H. Alssabagh <p class="Abstracttxt"><span lang="EN-IN">This paper aims to identify the most frequent fraud risk factors that affect the nature, timing, and extent of planned audit procedures. The perceptions of both international and local external auditors in the Kurdistan Region, Iraq, were investigated. In general, it was found that the respondents were more interested in assessing fraud risk factors related to misappropriation of assets (84.61%) compared with those related to fraudulent financial reporting (75.43%). Stepwise regression analysis indicates a positive and significant effect of each fraud risk factor related to fraudulent financial reporting that resulted from incentives or pressures and attitudes or rationalization, and the fraud risk factors related to the misappropriation of assets that resulted from attitudes or rationalization on the nature, timing, and extent of the planned audit procedures. However, other fraud risk factors in the study model did not show a significant effect on the audit program plan. The findings of this paper contribute to the existing literature in the area of fraud risk assessment and its effect on planning audit programs in eastern developing countries such as the Kurdistan Region, Iraq.</span></p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Significance of Literary Texts in the Pedagogy of English Language in EFL and ESL Classrooms 2020-12-30T20:02:06+03:00 Bahra Taib Rashid Mariwan Nasradeen Hasan <p class="Default" style="line-height: 150%;">Nowadays, one of the major concerns of teachers is usually about the material they intend to present to the students. The challenge that faces English classes is literature. The benefits of using literary texts in English language classes outweigh its shortcomings that specified by some literary critics, for instance, Chnara Khdhir and Mariwan Hasan pointed out this truth in their paper entitled, “The Importance of Literary Texts in Teaching Language in EFL Classes: The Waste Land as an Example”, which we strongly agree that one can easily learn a language through the literature of the target language. To learn a language one needs to study reading, writing, listening, and speaking; the four skills of the English language, which will all be available in the literature. Materials are provided, which are sufficient for these skills, but literary texts have ascertained a worthy source that accomplishes these abilities. Moreover, culture information is inferred via language learning, and yet with comprehension of the society. This is a characteristic of language that requires materials associating with culture. Culture is a basis for literature; namely; it does not merely imply that literature deals with culture, but literature about the culture of any specific user of that language. Furthermore, one can say the use of literary texts in language classes inspires more attentive and determined language learning. Thus, the students are not merely uncovered to the actual usage of language, but also they become critical scholars. As such, this study argues the causes behind focusing on the use of literary texts as a significant source in teaching the English language.</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The The European Court of Human Rights’ Approach in the Protection of Rights of Religious Minority Groups 2020-12-30T20:02:07+03:00 Chemen Bajalan <p>The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) is reluctant to distinguish the group right qua group. However, it is impossible to ignore the group dimension in the right to freedom of religion. Such a dimension is clearer in the manifestation of beliefs, which require more common practices than mere beliefs. The Court's decisions when dealing with the freedom of religion tend to be inconsistent because it considers the unique social and political situation of each member state. This limits the scope of the right to freedom of religion and the range of protection of a group's religious rights. Using a literature review and analyzing the case law, this paper highlights the inconsistencies in the Court’s decisions in relation to acknowledging minorities’ religious rights.</p> 2020-12-26T15:47:17+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Teachers’ and Students’ Attitudes Toward the Implementation of the Politeness Principle in Classroom Interaction 2021-02-16T11:06:39+03:00 Kavi Shakir Mohammed <p>Politeness is considered to promote effective interaction between people. In the process of language teaching and learning, it is believed to enhance learning by providing a lively and friendly atmosphere in the classroom (Jiang, 2010). During classroom periods, including class policy, activities, and techniques, a teacher’s language plays a critical role; it also plays an important role while giving academic instructions, motivating the class, and during the evaluation of a student’s performance and participation. This paper approaches classroom interaction from a pragmatic perspective by adopting Leech’s politeness principle and maxims. It aims to answer the following 2 questions: first, “what are the teachers’ attitudes toward the implementation of the politeness principle during classroom interactions?” and second, “what are the students’ attitudes toward the implementation of the politeness principle during classroom interactions?” To achieve the aims of this study by finding answers to the questions, the researcher prepared 2 sets of questionnaires: 1 for the teachers in the English Department and 1 for the fourth year students in the same department at the College of Basic Education, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Erbil, Iraq, for the academic year of 2018 to 2019. By analyzing the data collected, it was found that both the teachers and students have positive attitudes toward the politeness maxims and the implementation thereof during classroom interactions; furthermore, there was agreement between the teachers’ and students’ responses to the questionnaires for most of the politeness maxims except in 3 cases, which were for the maxims of sympathy, obligation (S to O), and feeling reticence.</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Organizational Justice and Job Satisfaction Among Nurses 2020-12-30T20:02:10+03:00 Alaa S Jameel Sameer S Hamdi Mohammed A. Karem Abd Rahman Ahmad <p>Organizations should enhance justice in the workplace to increase the satisfaction among employees. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of organizational justice on job satisfaction among nurses. The study cohort was composed of nurses from 2 public hospitals. A stratified sampling technique was employed to ensure better representation of samples from the 2 hospitals. A total of 184 valid questionnaires from 2 public hospitals were analyzed by structural equation modeling. The results showed that the 3 dimensions of organizational justice, namely distributive justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice, have a positive and significant impact on the nurses' job satisfaction. Distributive justice showed a greater impact on job satisfaction than procedural justice and interactional justice. The supervisors and administrators should be provided with information on how improvement in organizational justice leads to job satisfaction and on-the-job facilitation of employee innovation. The results of this study provide a clear image for hospital administrations about the substantial role of justice in the workplace.</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Teachers' Perceptions on Adaptation of Sunrise Coursebook at Sulaymaniyah Governorate in Kurdistan Region of Iraq 2020-12-30T20:02:11+03:00 Kochar Ali Saeed <p>This study aimed to determine if teachers employ any adaptations during their classes, and if so, what kind of adaptations are employed and how these are employed. This study sought to determine if adaptations are employed in correct and authentic ways.For this study, a qualitative method was used. The tool used in this study was a semi-structured interview. The questions of the semi-structured interview were adapted from Nguyen (2015). The study cohort was made up of teachers who were using or had used the <em>Sunrise</em> course books (levels 7, 8, and 9) in their teaching in the Sulaymaniyah Governorate in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI). The findings of this study showed that all the teachers employ adaptations in the classroom but to different degrees; some of them use only 1 or 2 types of adaptations because of the limited time they have available in their classes, whereas others apply most of the types of adaptations. Finally, the results showed that there is a positive relationship between experience and adaptation, with those teachers who had more experience employing more methods of adaptations during their classes.</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Need for Entrepreneurial Universities in the Kurdistan Region 2020-12-30T20:02:12+03:00 Alvin Aldawod 2020-12-31T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##