UKH Journal of Social Sciences <p>UKH Journal of Social Sciences&nbsp;(UKHJSS) is a semi-annual academic journal published by the University of Kurdistan Hewlêr, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. UKHJSS publishes original researches in all areas of Social Sciences and is a Peer-Reviewed Open Access journal with CC BY-NC-ND 4.0&nbsp;license. UKHJSS provides immediate, worldwide, barrier-free access to the full text of research articles without requiring a subscription to the journal, and has neither article processing charge (APC) nore article submission charge (ASC). UKHJSS Section Policy includes three types of publications: <em>Articles</em>, <em>Review Articles</em>, and <em>Letters</em>. UKHJSS has an e-ISSN: 2520-7806; and a member of Crossref, DOI:&nbsp;<strong><a href="">10.25079/issn.2520-7806</a>&nbsp;</strong>and&nbsp;DOAJ.</p> <p>UKHJSS is in the list of accredited Scientific Journals by Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq.</p> University of Kurdistan Hewlêr en-US UKH Journal of Social Sciences 2520-7806 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br> 1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-ND 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.<br> 2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.<br> 3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).</p> Kurds Stuck in Pain: A View of Kurdish Identity in the Way of Performativity <p>Why can Kurds not be happy, peaceful, joyous, and live a lifestyle on the top that they deserve just as many other ethnic identities have already done? Why do Kurds not have an independent state with a healthy and wealthy society just as many other populations, even the smallest, have achieved? Is it the destiny of Kurds? Or is it about behviours? The answer emerges from the pain that Kurds are stuck in. In this paper, Judith Butler’s concept of performativity is used to argue the aggrieved discourse that accompanies Kurdish identity with a tricky position called victim mentality. Analyzing limited and repeated discourses about Kurdish identity is used to attempt to suggest a new way of doing so, discursively. The idea that using a style of linguistic acts with embodied practices enables one to go beyond the current binary political framework for Kurds is explored.</p> Berna Kızılkaya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 5 1 1 7 10.25079/ukhjss.v5n1y2021.pp1-7 An Analysis of the Determinants of Household Expenditures in Rwanda <p>Economists use two different approaches, unitary and collective, to analyze household decisions. The unitary approach ignores the differences between single-person and multi-person households, whereas the collective approach states that each person in the household must be characterized by specific preferences. The household’s decisions concern mainly the allocation of their income to current consumption or for savings and future consumer expenditures. This study uses the Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis (CFSVA) data collected from a random sample in 2015 in Rwanda. The ordinary least squares (OLS) method was applied to a linear regression model to estimate the household demand functions (total household consumption expenditures, household food consumption expenditures and household nonfood consumption expenditures). The results show that the socioeconomic characteristics of the household, the possession of productive assets and wealth conditions as well as the household locational controls are among the primary drivers of its consumption expenditures. The findings highlight the policy efforts that improve household human capital (education, health), access to and capitalization of productive assets and financial capital, continuous urbanization of rural areas, and sustained provision of quality infrastructure, to achieve high standards of household welfare.</p> Aristide Maniriho Edouard Musabanganji Ferdinand Nkikabahizi Charles Ruranga Philippe Lebailly ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 5 1 8 17 10.25079/ukhjss.v5n1y2021.pp8-17 Conflict Dynamics in Post-2003 Iraq: A Security Dilemma Perspective <p>A decade and a half since the U.S. invasion, Iraq remains affected by complicated and increasingly changing uncertainties. Intrastate division and lack of social stability are expressed in ethnic and sectarian hostilities. In view of different reasons, 16 years after establishing the new Iraq, this paper asks: why has Iraq been marked by instability, transformation, and inability to maintain stability and peace? This paper explains the ethno-sectarian interactions in Iraq with the help of the theory of security dilemma and explores the derailment of Iraq's transformation process and the beginning of a new period of confrontation from a security dilemma viewpoint. The findings suggest that the security dilemma and ethno-sectarian conflict are further intensified by Kurdish, Shiite, and Sunni groups attempting to assess the threats posed not only by enemy militias but also by the presence of all groups in close proximity.</p> Hawkar J. Majeed Ishtiaq Hossain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 5 1 18 28 10.25079/ukhjss.v5n1y2021.pp18-28 The Effect of Total Quality Management on Organizational Performance: Empirical Evidence from the Construction Sector in Sulaymaniyah City, Kurdistan Region – Iraq <p>This empirical study seeks to examine the effect of Total Quality Management characterized by (management-leadership, employee relations, supplier management, project design, training, quality data and reporting, process management, continuous improvement, and customer focus) via organizational performance in the sector of construction in Sulaymaniyah City - Kurdistan Region - Iraq. For conducting this study, the data was collected through primary sources using a survey questionnaire to collect data from (106) leaders, heads of departments, managers, and supervisors. The obtained data were analyzed using statistical analysis tools like SPSS and SEM. The results showed that all the principles of Total Quality Management have a significant positive impact on construction company performance. The proposed model showed an acceptable fit.</p> Dalia Khalid Faeq Zanete Garanti Zana Majed Sadq ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 5 1 29 41 10.25079/ukhjss.v5n1y2021.pp29-41 Love and Emancipation in Forough Farrokhzad's Selected Poems: A Psycho-analytical Approach <p>The love relationship between couples can be influenced by several factors influencing it to become a strong one in one’s life or vice versa. Finding a real love is always considered to be the key point in the meeting of opposite sexes. In order not to face psychological problems in the future, everyone’s concern is to seek for the right person. This is true to some degree for many human beings. Real love can make one feel happy and pleased but it can sometimes make one upset and hopeless. Also, superficial love can be the same because it can be the cause of pleasure for the lover who only seeks a temporary relationship i.e., superficial love but similarly it can be the source of sadness for the partner whose intention in such a relationship is a real love. This strenuous power manifests itself in the behavior and sometimes in the appearance of the human beings. When one of the lovers stops his/her love relationship with his/her lover by starting a new relationship with another person, due to their beauty, this will be called superficial love. Such relations may culminate in deceiving and telling lies. This research will consider textual and psychological approaches in the analysis of the selected poems of Forough Farrokhzad to demonstrate real love and superficial love that may cause psychological and social impacts.</p> Mariwan Hasan Saman Mohammed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 5 1 42 49 10.25079/ukhjss.v5n1y2021.pp42-49 Investigating the Impact of EFL Students’ Misuse of Prosodic Features on their Face-to-face Interactions from University Instructors’ Perspectives <p>The present study aims at investigating the use of prosodic features by Kurdish EFL undergraduates in their face-to-face interactions inside/outside the classroom from the university instructors’ perspectives. The study hypothesizes that the majority of Kurdish EFL undergraduates are not fully aware of the fact that any misuse of prosodic features would probably affect the emotions, feelings, and attitudes that the face-to-face interaction is intended to convey. Building on an analysis of a questionnaire given to 54 university instructors at 10 Iraqi Kurdistan Region different universities, the study concludes that the majority of problems the students face can be related to the misuse of stress, intonation, and other prosodic features. Therefore, EFL instructors should pay more attention to make students learn how to use prosodic features and enable them to send messages adequately while engaging in face-to-face interactions. This would require special classes about prosodic features so that EFL students can overcome the misuse they have in face-to-face communication. This is inevitable because accuracy and fluency in communication require EFL students to master both features: segmental and suprasegmental. The reason behind this necessity could be attributed to the fact that broken and/or incorrect pronunciation can be considered as one of the most prominent factors behind misunderstandings in communication.</p> Bahram Sattar Abdulrahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 5 1 50 64 10.25079/ukhjss.v5n1y2021.pp50-64 Investigating University Student’s Acceptance of Information and Communication Technology: Applying the Technology Acceptance Model <p>Building on the technology acceptance model (TAM), this study examines university student’s acceptance of information and communication technology (ICT) as a learning resource outside of the classroom. With the aim of looking more deeply into this subject, the study applied the technology acceptance model to recognize the effect of perceived usefulness on the student’s actual use of ICT with the existence of perceived usefulness as a moderator variable. Data were collected from 376 students from Duhok Polytechnic University in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq using a questionnaire survey consisting of 15 items developed based on the related literature. The results support that both perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness are key determinants of student’s actual use of ICT as a learning resource, and the relationship between perceived ease of use and actual use is moderated by perceived usefulness. Based on the findings, conclusions, implications, limitations, and an outlook for future studies were made. The originality of this study stems from the use of perceived usefulness as a moderator on the relationship between perceived ease of use and actual use of ICT among university students.</p> Hadi Khalil Ismael Aree Mohammed Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 5 1 65 72 10.25079/ukhjss.v5n1y2021.pp65-72 The Impact of Learning Kurdish ‘Mother-Tongue’ in London on Mainstream Education <p>This study investigates the impact of a group of Kurdish children learning their mother-tongue, in two Kurdish Saturday schools in North London, and particularly the impact on the children’s integration into mainstream schooling. There are some historical issues surrounding ethnic minority children’s education that have been labelled as problematic towards their educational achievements in the United Kingdom. The responsibility of teaching the mother-tongue to those children takes place formally in supplementary or Saturday schools in their community rather than in mainstream schools. Many researches have revealed that learning their mother tongue is beneficial for children in general. In particular, this research focuses on the impacts on Kurdish children in mainstream education, since the number of children from diverse backgrounds is increasing, including the number of children from the Kurdish community. Mixed method research has been undertaken to examine this issue, including a semi- structured questionnaire and group interview used to collect data, as this research depended on students’ as well as parents’ views in integrating their child in some state schools. The findings revealed that learning the mother-tongue is beneficial for children from diverse backgrounds and that supplementary schools play a vital role in learning the mother-tongue on children’s attitude in mainstream education.</p> Sheelan Shakir Kadir ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 5 1 73 81 10.25079/ukhjss.v5n1y2021.pp73-81 Ronald Dworkin and Human Dignity as Highest Constitutional Value: Philosophical Theorization of Rights and Human Dignity in a Comparative Perspective <p>This paper focuses on the study of Ronald Dworkin and Human dignity as the highest constitutional value. Ronald Myles Dworkin (1931-2013), a famous American philosopher, jurist, and scholar of the United States constitutional law believes that constitutional provisions are permeated with moral principles and that human dignity is an intrinsic constitutional value, and that it must be considered in judicial decisions. Dworkin has his concept of rights, arguing that rights constitute claims against the state, and he espouses the idea that it is forbidden to sacrifice individual needs and preferences to achieve the public interest. That is, there are rights that the state cannot derogate from or violate, whatever the rationalizations and justifications. Dworkin categorically affirms that people have the right to be treated with dignity and that rights have an exceptional moral force that stems from the importance of human dignity, and that leads to preventing the formulation and implementation of specific policies even if they aim to enhance the general welfare of society. Consequently, his thoughts and reflections in this regard constitute a solid philosophical basis for the recognition of human dignity as the highest constitutional value.</p> Sherzad Ahmed Ameen Al-Najjar Hemn Ghani Saeed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 5 1 82 89 10.25079/ukhjss.v5n1y2021.pp82-89 Teaching Novels in an English Language Classroom: A Qualitative Study <p>This research article explores and studies the role of the English novel in English Language Teaching (ELT) from the students’ perspective. Novels are considered to motivate and enhance literary materials used in the classroom. The study used a qualitative approach. The research targeted senior students selected from an English Department. Use of the novel was observed to be a flexible learning tool. Novels have the ability to appeal and satisfy each learner’s unique style of learning. It can touch on the learners’ creativity and enhance their descriptive and dialogue abilities.</p> Shvan Gharib M. Faraj ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 5 1 90 97 10.25079/ukhjss.v5n1y2021.pp90-97 Effects of the Facebook Boycott Campaign on Turkish Products and its Influence on Demand of Kurdish Consumers 2020 <p>Boycotting is one of the most effective anti-consumption tactics used against practices deemed unethical or unjustifiable, and calling to boycott products through social media platforms has become a trend recently among young people. This paper studies the motives and causes of boycotting Turkish products among Iraqi Kurds and highlights the effects of the Facebook Boycott Campaign on Turkish products and Kurdish consumer demand. The research data has been collected through an online survey posted and published on several Facebook pages and groups in Iraqi Kurdistan. The findings from 1378 Facebook users who participated in the Facebook Boycott Campaign of Turkish products in Iraqi Kurdistan show that indirect support for Turkish policies to exterminate and invade Kurdish communities constitutes the leading cause of the Boycott Campaign. In addition, participation in the Facebook Boycott Campaign against Turkish products is considered a national duty more than an ethnic, ethical, religious, or other duty to humanity. The majority of participants believe that continuing to participate in the Facebook Boycott Campaign against Turkish products will have a huge impact on the Turkish economy and it is a warning to the Turkish government regarding its foreign policy towards Kurds.</p> Hardawan Mahmoud Kakashekh Hersh Rasool Murad Araz Ramazan Ahmad Muhammad Saud ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 5 1 98 106 10.25079/ukhjss.v5n1y2021.pp98-106 An Investigation into the Difficulties of Using Transitional Words in Kurdish EFL Students’ Writing at the University Level <p>The aim of this research is to deal with the use of different kinds of transitional words in Kurdish EFL students’ writing in two different levels. Namely, Kurdish EFL second- and third-year students often encounter problems of using transitional words when they want to write any kinds of paragraphs, essays in academic writing lectures. They have particularly made various kinds of mistakes while writing argumentative or persuasive essays. This study comprises of theoretical background and data analysis for samples of writing. It also proposes possible pedagogical implications and recommendations which cover doable teaching strategies for improving writing practice and academic writing. The result shows that second year students have inadequate ability and skills to use different kinds of transitional words. On the other hand, third year students have more abilities, but they have often misrepresented or clichéd most of the types of transitional words.</p> Farhad M. Hama ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 5 1 107 117 10.25079/ukhjss.v5n1y2021.pp107-117